With all due respect to Gainax...

The Fanboys Anime Glossary

akuma: devil, Satan
aniki/aneki:slang for 'big brother'/'big sister'
-chan: a friendly suffix, usually used when casually addressing children or girls up to high-school age
-dono: in historical or fantasy works, an honorific for somebody you respect; can be used for feudal lords
hime: princess
imoto: little sister
Jo'o-sama: queen
kami-sama: God, a god; megami-sama is a goddess.
-kun: a diminutive honorific suffix, usually used when addressing young men or boys
mazoku: (ma = evil, zoku = people) evil people ... basically a monster/demon
musume: 'girl', often used to refer to one's daughter
neko: cat
ningen: human; humanity
oba-san: grandmother, old woman
obaa-san: aunt
oji-san: grandfather, old man
ojii-san: uncle
oka-san: mother
onée-san: big sister, or sister-in-law, and also any young woman whose name you don't know between 18 and 40 something. If you're an older Japanese you can call waitresses 'o-nee-san', but foreigners are advised not to try it.
onénisama: what you get when you combine 'onée-sama' and 'onii-sama'. Literally, 'big sister-big brother'. What Mill-chan calls Maze, based on his/her gender-switching tendencies.
onii-san: big brother
oto-san: father
otoka-san: what you get when you combine 'oto-san' and 'oka-san'. Literally, 'father-mother'. What Pandemonium calls Havoc.
ototo: little brother
oyaji: 'pops'/'old man'; a colloquial term for father
-san: formal honorific suffix used when addressing a person you respect
-sama: like 'san', only more respectful. Often translated as 'lord' or 'lady'.
seme: in a gay relationship, the 'dominant' or 'male' role (in yaoi there's ALWAYS a 'man' and a 'woman'...goddamn Japanese gender roles :P); from the verb 'semeru'='to attack'
sempai: term used to address a more senior member of one's class or working environment. Loosely, 'upperclassman'
shoujo: young girl
shounen: young boy
tomodachi: friend
uke: in a gay relationship, the 'sub' or 'female' role; from the verb 'ukeru'='to receive'

arigatou:thanks, thank you, etc.
aitsu: very informal (i.e. rude) way of saying 'that guy' or 'him'
anata:familiar way of saying 'you', often used by married couples
ano: colloquially, it means "umm" ... literally, it means "that thing over there"
biida:a Japanese onomatopoeic word describing the sound made when you raspberry someone :p
boku: informal way for men to say 'I' or 'me'...but only when used as a statement, like 'boku wa' (I want...). Otherwise it means 'penis'. Many gaijin have made this mistake. ^_^
chikusho damn, shit
daijoubu desu ne: that's all right/it's okay
daiyo: 'it is' in a very informal way, usually used by men and/or rude people.
demo: but, but still, however
desu: it is, this is
gomen nasai:I'm sorry
hai: yes
hajimemashite: 'how do you do?'
hentai yarou: you pervert!
hidoi desu ne: how cruel!
iie/iya: no
itai: ouch!
ja mata/ja ne/mata ne: see you later. Can be rude if you're not a close friend.
ja nai: is not
kinishi nai: don't worry about it/it's ok
koko wa: 'here is', 'this place is'
kotchi: over here!, what you use to beckon somebody
kuso: damn, shit
kuso yaro: very impolite way to address somebody; loosely equivalent to 'you asshole'
mite kore: 'hey, look at this'
mochiron: of course, naturally
moshi moshi: what you say when you answer the phone. Also used to address somebody who's spaced out, like 'hello, are you there?'
mou: a frustrated sound, like 'geez' or 'honestly'
nan demo nai yo: 'it's nothing'
nani kore: 'what is this?'
naruhodo: 'I see', 'I understand'
neh: sort of like 'hmm?' or 'isn't that right?', used when you expect a positive response; also used to get somebody's attention in a casual manner
omedeto: 'congratulations!'
onegai: 'I beg of you'/'please'. Usually used after a statement.
oro?: 'Huh?'
pin-pon:'bingo!' - from the sound of a doorbell
shikashi: however; but; nonetheless
shimatta: 'dammit' or 'crap', a mild expletive, usually used when something screws up
shi'ne!:'DIE!' Villains scream this a lot.
sou desu ka/sou ka: is that right?/I see
sore wa himitsu desu: That's a secret.
sugoi: 'WOW!'/'cool!'/'neato!'
sumimasen:Formal way to say "I'm sorry"
tasukete!: 'Help me!'/'Save me!'
tonikaku: in any case/anyway
ureshii: happy, 'I'm so happy!'
wai!: sort of a Japanese version of 'YAY!'
yamete: stop it
yappari: 'I knew it'/'As I expected'
yare yare: 'my my'/'well well', that kind of thing
yatta:'YAY!' or 'I did it!'. A shortened form of 'yokatta' which means the same thing.
yoshi: what you say when you're about to start something. Sort of like 'Here I go!' or 'Alrighty then!'
zakennayo!: loosely, 'fuck off!'
zen zen wakarimasen: 'I don't understand at all.'

asobu: to play; 'asobimasho!' means 'let's have some fun!'
doki-doki suru: to have one's heart go 'pitter-pat', heart pounding. What shoujo heroines do a lot.
ganbaru: to do one's best, to try hard; imperative forms are 'ganbatte' and 'ganbare='hang in there' or 'do your best!'. Often said to Japanese schoolkids and/or shoujo heroines.
korosu: to kill
matsu: to wait. Imperative is 'matte!' or 'machinasai!'
nigeru: to run away. Imperatives are 'Nigete!' or 'Nigero!'

& Nouns
abunai: literally, 'dangerous'. Often used as an imperative, as in 'Look out!'
ai: love
atari:'bingo!' or 'you've got it!'
baka: stupid
benkyo:'study' - what Kintaro Oe says a lot.
bikkuri: surprise/surprising
chibi: little, shortstuff
chotto: a little; often used as a short form of 'chotto matte' (wait a sec)
dame: absolutely not
doujinshi:fan comics using characters from established anime or manga.
ecchi: naughty or perverted. It's actually the sound of how Japanese people pronounce 'H', which stands for 'hentai'. 'Ecchi' is often used as a lighter version of 'hentai'.
fuku: literally, 'uniform'. Often used to refer to the sailor suit outfits worn by Japanese schoolgirls.
genki: loosely translates as 'happy', 'lively' or 'energetic'
hayai: quick, fast. Imperative is 'Hayaku!'='Hurry up!'
hazukashii: embarrassing/'I'm embarrassed'
hen: strange. Therefore, hentai='strange person' or 'pervert'
henshin: transformation; what magical girls do
hontou: truthfully/honestly/really
kakkoi: cool/handsome
kawaii: cute
kimochi: literally, 'feeling'. Often used to mean 'that feels good'
kirei: pretty
kokoro: usually translated as 'heart', but can also mean 'soul' or 'mind'...basically, the seat of emotions.
kowai: scary
loli-con: short for 'Lolita Complex'; someone who is sexually attracted to little girls.
mahou: magic
mame: literally, 'bean'
masaka: 'it can't be!'
omake: extra/bonus
omoshiroi: amusing, funny, interesting
onsen: a Japanese hot-springs resort.
romanji: the phonetic writing of Japanese words using the Roman alphabet (what we're using here! ^_^)
shounen-ai: literally, boy's love. ^_~
shouta-con: the opposite of loli-con; someone who is sexually attracted to little boys.
sukebe: pervert, perverted
suteki: wonderful, amazing, great, etc.
taihen: how terrible/oh no
tanoshii: fun, amusing
urusai: literally, 'noisy'. When used as an imperative, it means 'Shut up!'
uso: literally, 'a lie'; a shortened version of 'usotsuki'. When used as an expletive it means 'That's not true!' or, as Haruto sez, 'You're shitting me!'
warui: bad
watashi: I/me
yaoi: refers to male/male situations. The word 'yaoi' is an acronym: 'yama nashi, ochi nashi, imi nashi', which means roughly "No climax, no point, no meaning". In general, the yaoi genre tends to focus on sexual or comedic themes and not so much on the relationship or emotional aspects, and often uses existing characters (like in doujinshi). Many westerners tend to use 'yaoi' as a catch-all term to denote male/male stories in general.
yume: dream

Particles, etc.
-tachi: more than one - a suffix indicating that the noun it's attached to is plural... also used for indicating one person with a group of others. Therefore, 'watashi'='me'; 'watashi-tachi'='we/us'
no: a particle usually meaning 'of' or 'belonging to'; therefore, 'Tonari no Totoro'='Totoro my neighbour', or 'watashi no tamagoyaki'='my omelette'. Or in the case of 'Kaze no Tani no Nausicaa'='Nausicaa of the Valley of the Winds' -- the order of the words is reversed compared to the English.
dare: who. Certain particles placed after the word will alter its meaning, i.e. dareka=someone; daremo=no one; daredemo=everyone.
doko: where?
bi-:prefix meaning beautiful. Therefore, bishoujo=beautiful girl; bishounen=beautiful boy; biseinen=beautiful young man, bijin=beautiful woman, bidan=beautiful man, etc.

Sarcasm-hime's Guide to Japanese Pronunciation

Japanese pronunciation is very easy. Basically, you pronounce every letter, including two vowels together (dipthong); there's no silent letters (except for some contractions of words...like 'suteki' which can be pronounced 'steki'. This usually occurs with the syllable 'su', like in 'desu' which is usually pronounced 'des', and to a somewhat lesser degree with the syllable 'shi'. But for the most part, if you're not sure, pronounce everything). ^_^

Regular vowels are usually prounced in a quite short and light manner. There are also long vowels, which are about twice as long as the short ones. The difference is often written in romanji as the vowel with a horizontal line over it (long vowel sign in phonetics). Since most browsers don't support phonetic fonts, most people online usually double up the vowel (like in 'Fushigi Yuugi') or use 'ou' or 'oh' in the case of a long 'o' sound. That's what we've done above, so some words like 'honto' have been written differently - 'hontou' - to show the long sound. Some people use a double 'o', but this can be misinterpreted by newbies as an 'u' sound, so it's not as common.
a: as in 'father'
i:as in 'feet'
u:as in 'mood', only with a slightly shorter sound
e:as in 'met'
o:as in 'fort'

Most consonants are the same as in English. Double consonants such as the 'kk' in 'gakkou' (school) are pronounced like you'd say 'bookcase'; you don't completely separate the consonants so that you have two 'k' sounds, but you lengthen the consonant with a little pause of sorts...as opposed to how you'd say 'bookie', which moves on from the 'k' quickly.
ch:always as in 'chair', never as in 'character' or 'charade'
g:always a hard sound like in 'get'
fu/fi:this one's hard. To get it right, you have to make a sound like halfway between 'h' and 'f', without your teeth quite touching your lip. You may notice that when Japanese people say 'coffee' it sounds like 'ko-hee'.
r/l:a rolled 'r', sort of like in Italian, only more light and gentle. It's sort of halfway between 'l' and a rolled 'r'. You may notice that some Japanese people pronounce it more like 'l', and others more like 'r'. The two letters are sometimes used interchangeably in romanji, since there is no difference betweeen them in Japanese.

Another good page with more detail on Japanese pronouns is here.

Common Fanboys Words & Phrases (non-Japanese)

cream lemon:Named for one of the first hentai series, this is what Havoc emits when smited.
facevault:What one does when surprised by something unbelievably stupid. Just think back to the characters from Ranma falling flat on their faces when Genma turns into a panda to avoid a messy situation, or Lina Inverse falling on her face after Gourry asks where they're going for the 50th time.
fanservice:Gratuitous nudity or suggestive images to make the fans happy. ^_~
Jusenkyo curseThe Jusenkyo springs are cursed springs in China that are shown in Ranma ½ . Each spring is possessed by the spirit of whatever originally drowned there; if you fall into one, you will turn into the creature that drowned there whenever you are hit by cold water. Warm water will return you to normal.
lemon:used to describe fanfics, usually. Lemon means it contains graphic sex; 'lime' is sometimes used to denote light ecchi content.
OVA/OAV:Stands for Original Video Animation/Original Animated Video, i.e. an anime that is released on video and not TV or Movie.
PWP:Defined in the world of internet fanfiction to designate a story whose only purpose for existence is a sex scene. It stands for "Plot? What plot?"
SD:Short for Super-Deformed. Characters squished down to look cute. They often do this while spazzing.
Sweatdrop:The oversized water droplet that appears by characters' heads in anime when they're worried, confused, embarrassed. etc.
Tenchi Masaki Syndrome:Named for one of anime's biggest (and most unwilling) girl magnets, this syndrome simply makes the sufferer irresistible to women and complete removes his desire to be with them.
UFO Catchers:Named, apparently, for the games in which you operate the little UFO-shaped crane to pick up the stuffed toys, these are otherwise known as plushies (i.e. little super-deformed plush dolls of anime characters).
Zoantropy:The transformation into a giant slavering beast that Carrot from Bakuretsu (Sorceror) Hunters undergoes when hit by magic. He must then be whipped by Tira and Chocolate until he turns human again.